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Sri Ranganatha Padhuka Sahasram

PADDHATHI #6: Assumption of Power

Adhikaara Parigraha Paddhathi





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Sloka #171

171. mahIkshithAm rAGhavapAdharakshE BhadhrAsanasThAm BhavathIm sprushantha: pUrvam thaThAthvE niyathE api BhUya: kalyANathAmAnashirE kirItA:

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! As kings' crowns all assembled and crowded around You,touching the golden ones acquired, in an additional sense, 'Kalyanatwa' (=goldness and auspiciousness)

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Here, Swamy Desikan plays with the double meaning ofthe word "KalyANA " . This word can mean either "auspicious or Golden " . Swamy Says: " Oh Raaghava PpadhukE ! When the golden crowns of the prostrating kings touched You duirng their prostrations , they became auspicious once more.Before coming into contact with You , they were merely golden (kalyANA) ; after making contact with You , they became auspicious (kalyANA). They were thus doubly blessed by offering worship to You .

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam : The PaadhukA sambhandham made the golden crowns of the prostrating Kings auspicious. The inner meaning is that even the virtuous ones (puNyasAlis) attain auspiciousness (KshEmam) after AchArya Sambhandham .

(3) Swamy describes the poorva (before ) and the utthara states of the Crowns as the kings prostrated before the sacred PaadhukAs of the Lord seated on the BhadhrAsanam ( throne). Prior to coming into contact with the Paadhukais , the crowns had kalyANathvam ( the nature of being Gold ); after the sparsam (touch ) of the Paadhukai , the crowns went beyond being just golden and attained the greatest state of auspiciousness ( KalyANathvam)..V.S

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Sloka #172

172. anicChatha: pANdaramAthapathram pithrA vithIrNam maNipAdharakshE! AsIth thvadharTham viGruthEna thEna ChAyA samagrA Bharatasya moULoU

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! Bharata thwarted the white umbrella (the Royal insignia),that was secured for him by Dasharatha. But now, when that umbrella stands at Your command, its lustre and shade are bestowed on Bharata himself!

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam : In the previous verse , Swami Desikan referred to those , who asked for blessings and received them from the PaadhukAs . Here , Swamy focuses on those , who get the blessings even without asking for them and illustrates this situation happening in the case of BharathA . Swamy Says in this context : " Oh Gem-bedecked PaadhukE ! BharathA refused the white umbrella that symbolized the Emperorship. He did not want the empire that really belonged to RaamA. Even if he rejected the white umbrella and the kingdom, the full shade of that royal insignia fell on BharathA , when he held that umbrella over the Paadhukai resting on the throne. When he protected You from the Sun , Your protection extended its reach over Your servant , BharathA ".

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam: The inner meaning is that when a sishyan is utterly detatched from the various desires , then the AchAryAs and PerumAl shower that sishyan with all types of wealth even if he did not ask for them .

(3) When BharathA placed the Paadhukais on the back of the royal elephant for its journey to the capital and held the royal , white umbrella (paaNDram aathapathram ) over them for protection against the Sun , the blessings of that umbrella provided total shade to Bharathan as well (samagrA chAyA aaseeth ).Bharathan did not seek the power of that umbrella for himself and yet the blessings of Paadhukai extended that protection from the umbrella for him ..V.S

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Sloka #173

173. pAdhukE raGhupathoU yadrucChayA prasThithE vanavihArakoUthukAth ADhirAjyamaDhigamya thE yuvAm akshatham vasumathImarakshatham

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Twin-Paadukas! Rama departed on His march to the woods unexpectedly; after giving You both to Bharata, He proceeded further enthusiastically. Both of You could not follow Him though You wished, But then You returned to receive the Royal throne of the Kosala country which you ably protected. (It looks as though You were representatives of the two brothers.)

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1)Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam : Oh Raama PaadhukE ! Just as BharathA acquired the benefit of the royal insignia( shade of the white umbrella )accidentally , You also got authority over the Kosala KIngdom suddenly. RaamA was on His way to DhaNdakAraNyam with You . Unexpectedly , BharathA arrived at ChithrakUtam and begged for Your Lord's return to AyOdhya . Right there, without any premeditation , RaamA appointed You as His representative to rule the earth with abundant wealth and asked You to return to AyOdhya with Bharathan .That is how You acquired the Lordship over Kosala nation .

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam : Oh PadhukE ! Raaman left suddenly for the Forest . At that time of chaos , You accepted responsibility for protecting the kingdom and its anxious citizens. The inner meaning is that sadAchAryAs do not give up one , even if PerumAL stays away from them .

(3)The beauty of the choice of words by Swamy Desikan here to celebrate the protection given by the Paadhukais to the Raajyam is very moving : " YuvAm aadhirAjyam adhigamya Vasumatheem AKSHATHAM ARAKSHATHAM "."Akshatham " means without any blemish; " arakshatham " means protected (i-e) the kingdom and the citizens were protected without any failing . The genius of Swamy Desikan in his choice of words is astounding ...V.S

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Sloka #174

174. raGhuvIrapadhAnuShangamAthrAth paribarhEShu nivEshithA yadhi thvam aDhikAradhinE kaTham punasthE parivArAsthava pAdhukE! baBhUvu:

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! There is a feeling that You, by reason of contact with Rama's Feet are one of the paraphernalia of the Lord (like the umbrella, the chamaras etc.). But then how could You have the umbrella, the chamaras etc. to stand in attendance? (No: You are like the Lord)

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Oh PaadhukE ! You can not be considered as an object of enjoyment and service , because you are worn by RaamA on His feet. In this respect, You are quite different from the umbrella and fans used for His service. They are indeed objects of service. If this is not so , how can one explain the royal umbrella and the fans becoming Your servants , when You ruled AyOdhyA as a representative of RaamA . Therefore , You are different from them and have become an object of veneration in a class by Yourself.

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam: The inner meaning is that Swamy NammAzhwAr should not be linked to the people of the World.He should be joined to the PerumAL vargam ( Lord's group).Swamy NammAzhwar was born in the Soodhra Vamsam originating from the divine fett of the Cosmic Purushan (Purusha sooktham ) and yet He was devoted to performing the duties of an AchAryan (AachAryakam ) instead of the assigned duties prescribed in the SaasthrAs for that Vamsam (i-e)performing service to others (susrUshai ).

(3) Oh PaadhukE ! Although You are affiliated with the sacred feet of the hero of the Raghu clan ( RAGHUVEERA PADHAANUSHANGAM ) , You can not be grouped as one more service object of the Lord .One has only to reflect upon what happened to the other service objects (Fan, Umbrella et al) on the day You accepted adhikAram as the ruler of the kingdom in the name of Your Lord.On that day , Your differentiation was spelled out as a result of the Fan and Umbrella et al becoming Your servants (PARIVAARAA: BHABHUVA )...V.S

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Sloka #175

175 purushArThachathuShtyArThinInAm pariShath thE mahithA vasiShTamuKhyaI: krayavikrayapattaNam prajAnAm aBhavath kAnchanapAdhukE! thadhAnIm

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! During Your reign, Your court had, as its members, sages like Vasishta. That higly valued court was the market-place, so to say, for anyone to 'sell or purchase' any goods. People who seek the four goals of life would serve You and secure their aspiration from You.

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Here Swami Desikan points out that the Lord's Paadhukais are able to confer Dharma (righteousness), arthA (wealth) , KaamA ( objects of desire) and mOkshA (salvation ) on its worshippers , just as its Lord. Swami Says: " Oh Golden PaadhukAs of Sri RaamA ! When You were ordained to rule over Kosalaa kingdom as the representative of RaamA , Sage VasishtA and other holy men blessed You along with RaamA so that You could confer on the citizens of Your kingdom all the four purushArthams ( life's four goals) as desired by them. Your boon-granting power in this regard equals that of Your Lord Himself ".

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam : Swami Desikan suggests that the PaadhukA sevakAs bought and sold the four purushArthams in the court of the Paadhukai . It was like the shoppers coming to a city bring their goods and exchange them for other things that they wish to have. The inner meaning is that SadAchAryAs absorb (learn ) auspicious things from great AchAryAs and bless their sishyAs with those upadEsams .

(3) Swamy Desikan uses the word "tadhAnIm " to bring before our mind's eye a happening that took place earlier at Chithrakootam during the occasion of the PaadhukA's acceptance of ruling the kingdom as the representative of its Lord .The kula purOhithar, Sage VasishTA and his peers were there and blessed simaltaneously Both RaamA and His Paadhukais . The power of those blessings empowered the court of the Paadhukais to become a market place for buying and selling (kraya-vikraya pattaNam ) by the visitors to the court , who desired to acquire the four desired-for goals of Life ( PurushArtha - chathushtyArthineenAm ) ...V.S

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Sloka #176

176. manujathvathirOhithEna shakyE vapuShaIkEna virODhinAm nirAsE aBhajadh BharatAdhiBhEdhamIsha: svayamArADhayithum padhAvani! thvAm

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! the Lord could have achieved all he wished, with His one form, that concealed His swaroopa; yet He took the forms of Bharata, Shatrughna etc., only for the purpose of paying homage to You. (paying homage to You was so much cherished by Rama.)

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Oh PaadhukE ! You are even superior to Your Lord ! VishNu Bhagavaan took the human forms (incarnated) as RaamA, BharathA , LakshmaNA and SatrugnA . Although He was quite capable of destroying RaavaNA single handedly , He took the form of BharathA to offer worship to You ". Here , Swami Desikan points out that RaavaNA's boons prevented him from being killed by VishNu or other Gods. RaavaNA could only be killed by humans for whom he had no fear .Therefore , Lord VishNu incarnated as a human being , the son of DasarathA . He did not need to manifest Himself as BharathA and other brothers to complete His mission to destroy RaavaNA . Swami Desikan wonders whether He manifested Himself as BharathA and brethern so that He could worship the PaadhukAs during his incarnation as the son of King DasarathA. (2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam: Oh PaadhukE ! Lord VishNu incarnated as the four brothers, Raama, LakshmaNa , Bharatha, Satrugnan . It would have been enough , had Lord VishNu incarnated as RaamA alone.He had however the desire to celebrate the Paadhukais . Hence , He took on the form of Bharathan. The inner meaning is that the Lord has a desire to celebrate His BhathAs through performance of AarAdhanam for them . He has such a depth of affection for His BhakthAs. Those who worship the BhaagavathAs of the Lord are themselves equal to perumAL . (3) Here Swamy Desikan speculates on why Lord VishNu incarnated as the four sons of King DasarathA instead of just as RaamA . Swamy describes this phenemenon of Lord VishNu taking on the form of BharathA and others ( BharathAdhibhEdham ). Lord VishNu had already hidden His supreme status by incarnating as mere human beings . Lord VishNu could have easily killed His enemies in the form of RaamA alone (yEkEna vapushA virOdhinAm nirAsE sakyEpi ) and yet He took on the form of four brothers. Why did Eesan (PerumAl) took more than one human form such as BharathA ? Swamy Desikan points out that the Lord was so fond of SatAri Soori that He wanted to offer His worship to him in the form of BharathA ( ThvAm svayam aaradhayithum BharathAdhi-bhEdham abhajath)....V.S

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Sloka #177

177. magaDhAngakaLingavangamuKhyAn vimathAn ranDhragavEShiNa: sasaInyAn raGhupungavapAdhukE! vijigyE Bharata: shAsanamudhvahan BhavathyA:

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Rama-Paaduka! Bharata, carrying out Your orders, won the enemy-rulers, who were kings of Maghada, Anga, Kalinga, Vanga, and the like; who were waiting to gain into the Paaduka-kingdom through available chinks.

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Here Swamy Desikan describes the services rendered by Bharathan to the sacred Paadhukais . Swamy says: " Oh PaadhukE ! Bharathan carried out Your orders out of reverence for You and defeated the armies of MagadhA , AngA , KalingA and VangA kingdoms , which invaded AyOdhyA during RaamA's absence .BharathA worshipped You and got Your blessings and with that strength defeated all those invading armies ".

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam: Oh PadhukE ! Bharathan conquered all the enemies of the kingdom at Your command. The inner meaning is that One conquers all internal and external enemies with the blessed katAksha-anugraham of a SadAchAryan.

(3) The choice of salutation ,"Raghupungava PaadhukE " here refers to the glory of the ever victorious Vijaya Raaghavan , the Master of the Paadhukais , who has been saluted as RaNapungavan and Aahavapungan ( the top most expert in battles) in ParamArtha Sthuthi of Swamy Desikan . " BhavathyA: Saasanam udhvahan sann (Bharatha:) ---vimathAn vijigyE " are the words of our AchAryan . "Saasanam " means aaj~nai or command .Bharathan obeyed that command of the Paadhukais , the ruler of the Kingdom , and defeated the armies of the kings , which meant harm to the kingdom of KosalA ...V.S

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Sloka #178

178. anitharavahanIyam manthrimuKhyaIryadhA thath thvayi vinihithamAsIth sUryavamshADhirAjyam raGhupathipadharakshE! rathnapITE tadhAnIm shriyamiva dhadhrushusthvAm sAdharam lOkapAla:

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! You reigned as the Empress of the throne of the Solar Dynasty, which cannot be managed by anyone else. When the chief advisors enthroned You, the Devas guarding over the eight directions, worshipped You as they would Sri Mahalakshmi. Thus You are the veritable Lakshmi!

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Here, Swamy Desikan salutes the Lord's Paadhukai as Soorya Vamsa Raaja Lakshmi. He points out that the Lords of the eight directions (dhig PaalakAs) recognized this principle behind the Paadhukai.He says that they recognized You as PaadhukA Lakshmi protecting the wealth of Soorya Vamsam. Swamy Desikan hints that Soorya Vamsa Raaja Lakshmi will stay in the kingdom as long as the PaadhukAs sat on the throne as the representative of Lord RaamachandrA .

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam :Oh Raghupathi PaadhukE ! When the kingdom of KosalA could not be ruled even by wise ministers like Sumanthrar , You accepted the royal duties in the name of Your Lord and sat on the throne of the Raghus. The kings of the earth and the Lords of the eight directions saw You then as saakshAth MahA Lakshmi .The inner meaning is that the SadhAchAryan appears to the devout sishyan as the embodiment of Jn~Anam, anushtAnam , VairAgyam , KshamA and dayA . Mahaa Lakshmi indeed incarnates as SadhAchAryALs.

(3)Swamy Desikan says here that the weight of the solar dynasty could not be borne even by the key ministers like Sumanthrar ( SooryavamsAdhi- raajyam manthri mukyai: anitharavahaneeyam ); then , PaadhukA took over that burden of ruling the kingdom and sat on the throne of the kings of the solar race. At that time ,The dhigpaalakAs worshipped with ardour the Paadhukai seatd on the gem-studded throne of Raghus as MahA Lakshmi Herself ( LokapAlA: thvAm rathnapeeDE Sriyamiva saadharam dadhrusu:)...V.S

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Sloka #179

179. parihruthadhaNdakADhvagamanam padharakshiNi! tath pariNathavishvasampadhudayam yuvayOrdhvithayam raGhupathirathnapITamADhiruhya thadhA vidhaDhE vyapagathavAiriBhUpanilayam vasuDhAvalayam

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! By avoiding the travel through Dandaka forest, You remained on Rama's throne and effectively ensured the welfare of all the worlds, eliminating from the whole earth, the complete lot of enemies.

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Oh Lord's PaadhukE ! You did not take part in the travels through the DhaNDakA forest. Had You accompanied Your Lord instead of sitting on the throne of Kosala kings, the enemy kings of Vanga-Kalinga- Anga-Maghadha desams would have succeded in their efforts to defeat an orphaned nation. You defeated them instead as the representative of Your Lord , while He was busy destroying RaavaNA and his entourage. The two of You working together freed the world from the enemies that tormented it. It is indeed an excellent distribution of labor between yourselves.

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam: Oh PaadhukE ! When Your Lord was away for fulfilling His avathAra KaaraNam , You sat on His behalf on the throne of Kosala kings and showered the universe with auspiciousness and freedom from fear of enemies. The inner meaning is that the SadAchAryAs stay away from the jungle of samsAram and shower on their beloved sishyAs all auspiciousness through the conferral of jn~Ana sampath and destroy their internal and external enemies.

(3) Two things happened . One was the abandonment of the travel by the PaadhukAs through DhaNDakA forest ( parihrutha DhaNDaka adhva gamanam).The other was the ascent on the gem-studded throne of Raghupathy ( Raghupathy rathna-peeta adhirOhaNam). The effect of these two acts were the whole world being rid of enemy kings ( vasudhA valayam vyapagatha vairi-bhUpa nilayam vidhadhE)....V.S

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Sloka #180

180. prApthOdayA thadhAnIm kimapi thamasthannirAkarOdh BhavathI thanuriva manukulajanuShAm prasavithrI rathnapAdhukE! savithu:

Meaning (translated by Sri. U.Ve. V.N. Vedanta Desikan)

Oh Paaduka! Your rise removed the darkenss. You were virtually the sun-rise for the prosperity of the Manu race.

Special Notes from Sri. U.Ve. V. Sadagopan

(1) Sri UtthamUr Swamy's anubhavam: Here , Swamy Desikan points out that SooryA Himself appeared as PaadhukAs and the descendants of Soorya Vamsam served as the ministers of the Paadhukais and thereby ruled the kingdom. He says: " Oh gem-bedecked PaadhukE ! You rose as SooryA in the Manu vamsam (SaavithrI) and removed the darkness as GayathrI . Thou art indeed SaavithrI and GayathrI for the lineage of Manu. With Your rising (acceptance of the duties of the kingdom ), the citizens of KosalA kingdom got blessed with unimaginable wealth and the lawlessness was totally eliminated.

(2) Srimath Andavan's anubhavam: Oh PaadhukE ! When RaamA went to the forest to fulfill the vow that He made to His father, You accepted the responsibilities to rule the kingdom and thus removed the deep sorrows of the citizens , just as the rising Sun banishes the darkness of the night .The inner meaning is that the darsana soubhAgyam of SadAchAryAs banishes one's aj~nAnam and viparItha J~nAnam , just as Sunrise chases away the darkness of the night .

(3) In this last of the fourty slOkams of the sixth paddhathi ( AdhikAra Parigraha Paddhathi ), Swami Desikan salutes the Paadhukai as the veritable Sun sitting on the throne of the Manu Vamsam kings (Savithu: tanuriva kimapi). He states that the Paadhukais chased away the sorrows (dark moods) of the citizens of the Kosalaa kingdom like the rising sun removing the darkness of the night ( tath tama: nirAkarOth)...V.S

KavitArkika SimhAsya , Sarvatanthra-Svathanthrasya , Srimath VenkatanAthasya Srimath VedAnthAchAryasya kruthishu Sri RanganAtha PaadhukA SahasrE AdhikAra Parigraha Paddhathi sampUrNam

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